Manuscript Preparation

General guidelines
Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced, with lines and pages numbered consecutively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points. Manuscripts should be prepared in Word format. Research articles and short communications should be composed of Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion and References. Case reports should consist of Abstract, Introduction, Case Presentation, Discussion and References sections. Review articles should consist of Abstract, Introduction, Conclusion and References sections.

Title page
In the manuscript the names and surnames of the authors who directly contributed in the study should be written. Under the authors the open names of the institutions of the authors, city names and country should be written. The supporting funds, grand number and associations should be written here. If the study was presented in a congress before, the congress name, time (day-month year) and place should be stated. At the bottom of the title page the name, surname, open address, postal code, phone number (including GSM if convenient) and e-mail of the corresponding author should be written.

The abstract should not exceed 300 words in research and review articles. In case reports, the abstract should not exceed 150 words. The abstract must summarize the major objectives, methods, results and conclusions of the study. In case reports these sections are not needed.  In letters to editor no abstract is needed. The use of abbreviations in abstract should be avoided. However, if abbreviations should be used, the abbreviation should be given in parenthesis after the first use of the original words.

Keywords should be given just after the abstract. It should consist of maximum 5 words or phrases relevant to the study, which are not used in the title.  Keywords should be written as follows; Keywords: laying hens, bone, foot health, perching, cage type.

Introduction section should explain the background to the study, a summary of the recent literature and why this study was necessary. In addition, at the end of this section, the purpose of the study should be clearly stated as a separate paragraph.

Materials and methods
In materials and methods section sufficient information for the researcher to be able to repeat the work should be given. Number, age, sex, breed or strain of animals used in the study must be specified. The scientific name of the plants and animals should be given, except commonly used laboratory and domesticated animals such as rat, chickens, dogs or goat. All sources of products or equipment used in the experiments must be specified. Corporation name, city and country must be given parenthetically at first mention in text. The Statistical methods used should be given in detail. If an animal is used in the study, it must be specified in this section where animal care guidelines are followed. This section may be divided by subheadings such as animals and feeding, experimental design, blood and tissue collection, chemical analyses, statistical analyses etc.

This section should include results of the experiments. It can be supported with figures, graphics or tables. Statistically significant points should be emphasized.
Each table should be presented on a separate page with a self-explanatory title. Tables should be specified consecutively as Table 1, Table 2. etc. If abbreviations are used in tables, the open statement should be given in the footnote and in alphabetical order. For example; ASD = atrial septal defect; PS = pulmonary stenos; VSD = ventricular septal defect.
Each figure should be presented on a separate page with a self-explanatory caption, and should be referred to consecutively in the text as Figure 1, Figure 2 etc. The captions should be placed below the figure. If abbreviations are used, the open form of those abbreviations should be written in alphabetical order under the figure. In microscopically pictures, a scale bars with appropriate units must be provided. Written permission must be obtained from the rights holder in order to use photographs, illustrations or graphics from another source. All pictures and drawings should be prepared in JPEG format.

The data should be interpreted concisely without repeating results already presented in the results section. Authors may speculate while discussing the data but should not go beyond obtained results.

This section should state clearly the main conclusions of the study and the contribution to the field should be emphasized.

In this section, author (s) may acknowledge individuals or organizations that provided any support to the study.
References must be written in accordance with the American Psychological Association (APA) format.
Citation in text
References are cited by the name(s) of author(s) and the year of publication.
For single author Nicol (1987) or (Nicol, 2015)
For two authors Newman and Leeson (2016) or (Newman and Leeson, 2016)
For three or more authors Akira et al. (2001) or (Akira et al., 2001)
When multiple references are cited, it should be written by chronological order using semicolons: (Hugs et al., 2003; Carter and Mills, 2014; Lutz, 2016). Multiple references from the same author(s) should be written as follows: Johnson et al. (2007 and 2009), Johnson et al. (2015a and 2015b).
Presentation in the references list
The references should be written double-spaced in a separate page. Literature cited should be listed in alphabetical order by authors’ surname.
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title. Journal title, Volume (Issue), pp.-pp.
Erf, G. F. (2004). Cell-mediated immunity in poultry. Poultry Science83 (4), 580-590.
Jung, K., & Saif, L. J. (2017). Goblet cell depletion in small intestinal villous and crypt epithelium of conventional nursing and weaned pigs infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Research in Veterinary Science, 110, 12-15.
Padunglerk, A., Prasanpanich, S. & Kongmun P. (2017). Use of monosodium glutamate by-product in cow diet on performance of lactating dairy cows. Animal Science Journal, 88(1), 86–93.
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year) The name of the book. City, State: Publisher.
Abbas, A. K., Lichtman, A. H., & Pober, J. S. (2000). Cellular and molecular immunology 4th ed. Philadelphia, US: W. B. Saunders.
National Research Council (1994). Nutrient requirements of poultry 9th rev. ed., Washington, US: National Academic Press.

Chapter in book
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In First Initial. Second Initial. Surname of the Editor (Ed.), Title of book, (pp. Pages).City, State: Publisher.
Lappin, M. R., & Turnwald, G. H., (2004). Microbiology and infectious disease. In M. D. Willard, D.C. Twedt (Ed). Small animal clinical diagnosis by laboratory methods 4th ed. (pp. 332-356). St Louis, US: W.B. Saunders.
Online book (E Book)
Citing with DOI number
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year) The name of the book, DOI:10.xxxx/xxxx
Perez-Marin, C. C. (2012). A Bird's-eye view of veterinary medicine, DOI: 10.5772/31960
Citing with URL
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial.  (Year) The name of the book. Retrieved from Link
Perez-Marin C. C. (2012). A Bird's-eye view of veterinary medicine, 
Retrieved from
Chapter in online book (E book)
Citing with DOI number
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In First Initial. Second Initial. Surname of Editor (Ed.), Title of book, (pp. Pages). DOI: 10.xxxx/xxxx
Perez-Marin, C. C. (2012). A Bird's-eye view of veterinary medicine, DOI: 10.5772/31960
Citing with URL
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In First Initial. Second Initial. Surname the Editor (Ed.), Title of book, (pp. Pages).Retrieved from Link
Perez-Marin C. C. (2012). A Bird's-eye view of veterinary medicine, 
Retrieved from
Web site
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Date of publication). Article title. Retrieved from URL
Clements, M. (2010, December 4). Enriching free range chickens and reducing feather pecking. Retrieved from
Congress / Conferences
Unpublished Conference Paper 
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month date). Title of paper, Paper presented at Name of Conference, City, State.
Marchioro, T., Salvano, A. O., & Bohm, A. (2016, September 27-30). Canine heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) in Spain. Paper presented at the 21st World Small Animal Congress. Istanbul, Turkey.
Published Conference Paper 
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Conference paper title. In Editor First Initial. Editor Surname (Ed.), Proceedings Book Title (pp. page range of paper). Place of Publication: Publisher.
Kelly, S., & Murray, T. (2004). Common Cancers in Small Animals. In R.  Balkan (Ed), New Advance in Veterinary Oncology (pp. 52-58). Istanbul, Turkey: Metropole Press.

Arthur, A. R. (2016). The role of cytokines in the immune system. PhD thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, US.